Archive for category Python 3

Pygame Tutorial Update: Tutorial 3.5 Creating Bullets, Enemies, and Meteors

Since the update for Tutorial 4 is taking longer than expected, I decided to switch from coding to art assets to keep the posts flowing. 

Also, it’s worth noting that on the Gamasutra Web site, Chris Hildenbrand has added more helpful 2D game art tutorials (there are 8 in total, listed at Gamasutra and at Chris’ blog page 2D Game Art for Programmers.  If your looking to improve your skills or looking to get up to speed with Inkscape his tutorials are a must read.  What caught my attention the most was the tutorials he did on attack helicopters.  Helicopters have always been a fun gaming element from back in the days of Choplifter and Infiltrator to Jane’s AH-64D Longbow (and Longbow 2).  Chris’ tutorials are very straight forward and easy to follow.  In just a couple of hours, you will be able to easily go from a blank Inkscape window to something like:

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Pygame Tutorial Update: Tutorial 4 still a WIP Tags: ,,,,

At this point we have the basis for the Python pygame model.  We have the environment(outer space) and our player with the ability to move, but not shoot (nothing to shoot at yet).  The game now looks something like this (using the more “modern” version of artwork):




But, ultimately what the window should look like, to make it more interesting and much more interactive would be something like the following mock up ( currently the game window does not look like this, but this is the intended final result). Currently I’m figuring out the GUI, I’ve gotten the furthest using Tkinter, but I haven’t gotten to the part where I can see the interaction between tkinter’s mainloop() and pygame’s mainloop().



Currently the work being done is on the GUI, to use what is available without having to include any additional install packages, this means that the GUI will be created either directly in pygame or using Tkinter(if possible). An alternate solution I’m thinking of is to create a transparent interface with SVG images and replace the option panel with that and then hardcode the buttons with pygame, but we’ll see how tkinter works out.  The actual current window looks like this:


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Note about tutorials

Sorry about the source code in the tutorials, (I either lose the spacing but retain the  source formatting, or vice versa) while I try and isolate the problem (I have it narrowed down to an ID 10 T error) I have posted complete listings of each of the files;

I checked that the code appears properly in Firefox and IE, if anyone is using a browser other than these drop me a comment if you have difficulty viewing.  Help me resolve the ID 10 T error!

Note: You can also leave a comment if you want to vote for either aliens or meteors in the the game.



alien_2 meteor

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Python Tutorial 02: Adding a background

In the first tutorial, we created a simple window using Python and Pygame. The next step, will be building on that example, we will create a star field background, then write the code to animate it.  One important point about these tutorials is the assumption that anyone following along already has at least a basic knowledge of how Python code is structured.  If that is not the case, then you should, at the very least, want to have the Python documentation(included in the Python install) at hand incase you wanted it for a reference.  There are some very good resources available for Python, either through THE OFFICIAL PYTHON WEB-SITE or by completing a Google search on the Python version you have installed.  If you have already coded the first tutorial you should do just fine with this one.  If there are any comments about the tutorials, whether they are critical or complimentary, you’re welcome to post them.  If there’s information that I have glossed over or skipped entirely, let me know, and I will add it in, with future edits of the tutorials.



I typically use Editra v0.7.12 to write Python code, when including the psyco try/except block, Editra would occasionally crash.  When I ran the file in Python IDLE 2.6, it never crashed(but you need to have the pygame.quit() statement, so the app window does not crash).  If you’re using a different IDE your mileage may vary, if in doubt, use IDLE as your benchmark(or use IDLE to run this example).

UPDATE: Psyco is no longer supported as of March 12, 2012. If you are already using it you can choose to include it, if you’re not using psyco then avoid the install unless your confident that you can make it work.

Skip the source code in red, it is the psyco try/except block!

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Python Tutorial 01: A Basic window using Python and Pygame.

The best way to get the most updated version of Python is from the Official Python Web-site, and Pygame found at the Pygame Official Web-site.  The most popular question when starting with Python, “Should I start with 2.x or 3.x?”.  The answer I would suggest, if you’re not supporting legacy code (versions like 2.5 or older) start with the newest version of Python you can run on your system, and handle your coding requirements.  As an example, for my situation, I have multiple versions installed ( 2.4 for Nvidia’s Fx Composer 2.5, 2.6 for Blender 2.49 and Panda 1.7, and 3.1 for coding and Blender 2.5/2.6 ), it’s what works for me.  Others might decide to have a particular version of Python on their hard drive, and other versions on memory sticks.  Just a reminder, the Python install is typically small ( less than 30 MB, so many applications written in Python include the Python code for simplicity – Blender and FX Composer both run this way), so if you have Open Source software on your system, or are running a non-Microsoft OS your system probably already has some version of Python.

The included code is in Python (it works with both 2.x and 3.x) and uses the Pygame version 1.9 library.

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Python 3: Native Data Types: Cheat Sheet

When first learning Python 3, I made a “cheat sheet” listing of the data types, primarily to help get myself accustomed to Python’s data types that differed from the data types used in C++. I did this while reading Mark Pilgrim’s book “Diving into Python 3″(Highly recommended as a solid intro into Python 3) and using the Python v3.1.3 documentation. I decided to post the “cheat sheet” just incase someone finds it useful. This is by no means the definitive listing for Python data types, but it is intended as a quick reference for basic features of the types listed.

Python 3.1: Native Data Types

  1. Booleans
    1. True = 1
    2. False = 0
  2. Numbers
    1. Integers                                                               2,3,4, etc.
    2. Floating Point                                                     2.0, 3.0, 4.0, etc.
    3. Fractions  (import the fractions module)      2/3, 3/5, etc
    4. Complex                                                             (real)i + (imaginary)j
    5. In a Boolean Context
      •             zero values are False
      •             non-zero values are True
  3. Strings
    1. Sequences of Unicode characters
    2. Delimited by either single or double quotes – use double quotes when an apostrophe is present in the string
    3. Do not take arithmetic operations (without a conversion – obviously!)
  4. Bytes and Byte Arrays
    1. Have all methods found on strings, with the exception of encode(), format() and isidentifiier()
    2. Bytes objects are immutable , 8-bit bytes, in the range of 0 to 256
    3. Byte array objects are mutable and unhashable.
    4. Image files
  5. Lists
    1. Indexed a_list[0] (index from left to right) a_list[-1](index from right to left)
    2. Slices a_list[x:y]
      •              x = start point included
      •              y = end point, up to but not included
      •              [:] = copy the entire list
    3. Adding items
            •              append(x)
            •              extend([x,y,z])
            •              insert(x, value)
            •                        x = position to inset value
            •                       value = the object to insert at position x
    4. Duplicates are allowed
    5. Holds anything and its dynamic
    6. del a_list[1]   => deletes a specific item
    7. del a_list       => deletes the entire list
    8. a_list.pop(x)
      •             when x is omitted, removes the last item in the list and sends it as output
      •             when x is provided, removes the item at position x and sends it as output
    9. Calling pop() on an empty list raises an exception!
    10. In a Boolean Context
        •             an empty list is false
        •             a non-empty list is true
  6. Tuples
    1. Accessed just like Lists
    2. There is no mechanism to change a Tuple (add/subtract elements)Equivalent to a “write-protected” list
    3. A tuple can be sliced like a list
    4. Check for specific values
    5. Can assign multiple values at once (in order)
    6. If the tuple has a single element, it must be followed by a comma – to consider it a tuple
    7. In a Boolean Context
      •              an empty tuple is False
      •              a non-empty tuple is True
  7. Sets
    1. An unordered collection of unique values.
    2. A single set can contain values of any immutable data type.
    3. Implemented as classes
    4. Once you have two sets, you can do standard set operations
      •             union
      •             intersection
      •             set differences
    5. In a Boolean Context
      •            an empty set is False
      •            a non-empty set is True
  8. Dictionaries
    1. An “unordered” set of key-value pairs.
    2. When a key is added, a value for that key must also be added.
    3. Python dictionaries are optimized for retrieving the value when you know the key, but not the other way around.
    4. You can have duplicate values, but not duplicate keys.
    5. Assigning a new value, overwrites the old one.
    6. Case sensitive
    7. Can contain a collection of any type (mixed types allowed)
    8. Like lists and sets, the len() function gives the number of key-value pairs in the queue.
    9. In a Boolean Context
      •             an empty dictionary is always False
      •             a dictionary with at least one key-value pair is True
  9. The value None
    1. Is a special constant, it’s a null value, not the same as False, not zero, and it is not an empty string.
    2. Comparing None to anything other than None will always return False
    3. In a Boolean Context
      •             None is False
      •             anything else other than None is True

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